Implications of a Diagnosis of ADHD
children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD are at a greater risk for…
Outcomes from 351 studies were grouped into nine major categories:
- antisocial behavior
- non-medicinal drug use/addictive behavior
- services use
- social function outcomes
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3520745/ Shaw, M., Hodgkins, P., Caci, H., Young, S., Kahle, J., Woods, A.G., and Arnold, LE. A systematic review and analysis of long-term outcomes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: effects of treatment and non-treatment. BMC Med. 2012; 10: 99
The following broad trends emerged:
1. Without treatment, people with ADHD had poorer long-term outcomes in all categories compared with people without ADHD.
2. Treatment for ADHD improved long-term outcomes compared with untreated ADHD, although not usually to normal levels.
Predominantly Hyperactive/Impulsive Presentation
- Feels restless, often fidgets with hands or feet,
- Runs or climbs excessively
- Often talks excessively
- Often blurts out answers before hearing the whole question
- Often has difficulty awaiting turn
- Makes spur-of-the-moment decisions
Predominantly Inattentive Presentation
- Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes
- Often has difficulty with sustained attention to tasks
- Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
- Often easily distracted
- Often fails to follow instructions carefully and completely
- Loses or forgets important things
●Meets 12 criteria for both Inattention andHyperactivity/Impulsivity.
●This is the most common diagnosis.
There are nine criteria for each of the Inattentive and Hyperactive/Impulsive Presentations.
An individual diagnosed with ADHD can have any one of the hundreds of combinations of these criteria.
If you know someone with ADHD, you know ONE person with ADHD. They all present differently although there are some commonalities.
Females with ADHD are reported to have fewer hyperactive/impulsive symptoms and more inattentive symptoms when compared with males with ADHD. Further, females with ADHD present more commonly with the inattentive presentation than do males.
Males and females with ADHD do not differ from each other in off-task behaviour, minor motor movements, or cognitive function and academic achievement.
However, females with ADHD are more likely than males with ADHD to be overlooked and under-diagnosed.