The role of neurotransmitters – the brain’s chemical messengers.
Implicated in ADHD:
“Executive function is the conscious control or self-regulation of thought, action, and emotion.”Dr. Philip David Zelazo, PhD, Developmental Psychologist and Neuroscientist
Executive functions represent a constellation of cognitive abilities that drive goal-oriented behaviour and are critical to the ability to adapt to an ever-changing world.
How is the brain involved with executive function?
The frontal lobe is widely considered to be associated with executive function.
Maturity of the Frontal Lobe
This area is one of the last regions of the brain to reach maturity, sometime in the early adulthood years.
The prefrontal cortex is the cerebral cortex covering the front part of the frontal lobe. The basic activity of this brain region is considered to be the orchestration of thoughts and actions in accordance with internal goals. The typical psychological term for functions carried out by the prefrontal cortex area is executive function.
Barkley RA: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, self-regulation, and time: toward a more comprehensive theory. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1997, 18 (4): 271-279. Willcutt EG, Doyle AE, Nigg JT, Faraone SV, Pennington BF: Validity of the executive function theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analytic review. Biol Psychiatry. 2005, 57 (11): 1336-1346.
As essential as they are, we aren’t born with the skills that enable us to control impulses, make plans, and stay focused.
We are born with the potential to develop these capacities—or not—depending on our experiences during infancy, throughout childhood, and into adolescence.
Center on The Developing Child – Harvard University https://developingchild.harvard.edu/